Educational inequalities in mortality and survival of women and men in the Americas, 1990–2010

Haeberer M, Noguer I, Mújica OJ.
Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2015:38(2):89–95
Published online: 13 October 2015
Abstract / Resumen:

Objective. Analyze magnitude and trends in educational inequality in mortality and survival of women and men in countries of the Americas. Methods. Gap and gradient metrics were used to calculate inequality between countries in adult mortality, average age of death, life expectancy, and healthy life expectancy, according to educational level in men and women for 1990 and 2010. Results. Between 1990 and 2010, the average number of years of education increased from 8 to 10 with no difference between sexes. Adult mortality (15-59 years) did not change: 1.9 per 1 000 women and 3.7 per 1 000 men. The slope index of inequality (SII) increased from –1.0 to –2.0 per 1 000 women and from –1.2 to –4.4 per 1 000 men. Life expectancy increased from 75.6 to 78.7 years in women and from 68.9 to 72.4 in men; absolute inequality decreased from 7.8 to 7.2 years in women and increased from 7.2 to 9.2 years in men. Healthy life expectancy increased from 63.7 to 65.9 years in women and from 59.5 to 62.5 years in men; the SII declined from 6.9 to 5.8 years in women and increased from 6.9 to 7.8 years in men. Conclusions. In the countries of the Americas, men are at greater risk of dying, die earlier, and live fewer disease- and disability-free years than women; educational level is a determinant of mortality and survival in both sexes, and educational inequalities are more pronounced and increasing among men, and are disproportionately concentrated in the most socially disadvantaged populations.

Keywords / Palabras clave:
Health Inequalities, Social Determinants of Health, Education, Gender and Health, Americas

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